**Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat** Questions - GCSE standard

**Q7. **A new design for a kettle has been suggested. It is made from two layers of plastic separated by a vacuum. After the water in the kettle has boiled, the water stays hot for at least 2 hours.

Here is a diagram of the design.

(a) Explain why the vacuum reduces energy transfer to the surroundings and keeps the water warm for a longer time than a traditional kettle.

**[3 marks]**

(b) The energy transferred from the water in the kettle to the surroundings in 2 hours is 46 200 J. The mass of water in the kettle is 0.50 kg.

The specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J/kg °C.

The initial temperature of the water is 100 °C.

(i) Calculate the temperature of the water in the kettle after 2 hours.

**[4 marks] **

(ii) Calculate the average power output from the water in the kettle to the surroundings in 2 hours.

**[3 marks]**

**(Total 10 marks)**