Reference documentation for deal.II version 9.5.0
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Modules | Namespaces | Classes
Grids and Triangulations
Collaboration diagram for Grids and Triangulations:


 Iterators on mesh-like containers
 Manifold description for triangulations
 Grid reordering and cell orientation
 A module describing how deal.II consistently orients Triangulation objects.


namespace  parallel::distributed::GridRefinement
namespace  GridGenerator
namespace  GridRefinement
namespace  GridTools


struct  GeometryInfo< 0 >
struct  GeometryInfo< dim >
class  FilteredIterator< BaseIterator >
class  GridIn< dim, spacedim >
class  GridOut
class  InterGridMap< MeshType >
class  PersistentTriangulation< dim, spacedim >
class  ReferenceCell
class  Triangulation< dim, spacedim >
class  TriaAccessorBase< structdim, dim, spacedim >
class  CellAccessor< dim, spacedim >
struct  CellData< structdim >
struct  SubCellData
class  TriaRawIterator< Accessor >
class  TriaIterator< Accessor >
class  TriaActiveIterator< Accessor >

Detailed Description

This module groups functions and classes that have to do with the topology and geometry of meshes. A mesh can be thought of as a collection of cells; if the mesh has been refined (possibly in an adaptive way), then this collection is grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. In addition to cells, the geometric objects that make up a triangulation are the faces of cells (and in 3d the edges of cells) as well as the vertices of the cells. Note that we abuse the word triangulation somewhat, since deal.II only implements triangulations made up of linear, quadrilateral, and hexahedral cells; triangles and tetrahedra are not supported.

This collection of cells is managed by the Triangulation class and derived classes such as parallel::distributed::Triangulation and parallel::shared::Triangulation. It holds the relevant data in memory and offers interfaces to query it. Most things you want to do on cells are performed in loops over all cells. For this purpose, the Triangulation class offers the concept of iterators (see Iterators on mesh-like containers): although implemented differently, they behave like pointers to cells or faces and can be queried for the geometric properties of cells as well as information like neighboring cells or faces of a cell.

It is worth noting that the Triangulation class only stores geometry (i.e. the location of vertices and cells) and topology of a mesh (i.e. which cells are neighbors of which other cells, etc). It has nothing to do with finite elements or degrees of freedom that might be defined on a mesh. These functions are performed by the DoFHandler class (see the Degrees of Freedom module) that gets a description of the finite element space and the allocates and manages degrees of freedom on vertices, faces, or cells, as described by the finite element class. This separation makes it possible to have multiple DoFHandler classes work on the same mesh at the same time.

In the grand scheme of things, triangulations in deal.II interact with a variety of other parts of the library:

Grid generation

There are three ways to create a mesh:

For the first case, the GridGenerator class provides functions that can generate the simplest and most common geometries automatically. For example, a rectangular (or brick) geometry as well as circles, spheres, or cylinders can be generate with the functions in this class. Most of the tutorial programs use this mechanism.

Secondly, it is possible to read in meshes from an input file in a number of different formats using the GridIn class. Using this class, it is possible to read meshes with several 10 or 100 thousand cells, although this is not really recommended: the power of adaptive finite element methods only comes to bear if the initial mesh is as coarse as possible and there is room for a number of adaptive refinement steps. If the initial mesh is too fine already, then one runs out of memory or compute time before adaptive mesh refinement is able to do much good. Nevertheless, the GridIn class can be used in cases of complicated geometries or for comparison or interaction with other programs that compute on meshes that are then exchanged through this class The step-5 tutorial program shows how to use the GridIn class.

The third way is to create a mesh by hand, by building a data structure that describes the vertices and cells of a triangulation. This is useful in cases of moderate complexity where a mesh can still be built by hand without resorting to a mesh generator, but where the domain is not one of those already supported by the GridIn class. In this method, the data structure so built is handed to the create_triangulation() function of the Triangulation class. The step-14 tutorial program shows how this can be done.

Grid output

Meshes can be written to output files in a number of different formats. If this involves simulation results obtained on this mesh, then this is done using the DataOut class (described in more detail in the Graphical output module). On the other hand, if only the geometry and topology of the mesh is to be written to a file, the GridOut class can do this for you.

Tool classes

The GridTool class offers an assortment of functions that act on grids. For example, this includes moving around nodes, stretching or rotating entire triangulations, computing the diameter of a domain, or subdividing it into chunks of roughly equal size for parallel computations.

The GridRefinement class implements a number of mesh refinement algorithms, based on refinement indicators given to its member functions.

Internal classes

In addition to the above, there are a significant number of classes in this module that are only used in the internal data structures of mesh handling. They are generally in the internal namespace, and not meant for use in application code.